Flat Foot is the term used when the foot loses its normal arch, appearing flat against the ground. It is a complex process that involves problems with the tibialis posterior (TP) tendon, the spring ligament and the hindfoot joints.
The TP tendon is a large, important tendon that helps to hold up the arch of the foot and it can either tear or become damaged over many years. For this reason Flat Foot can also be called Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) or Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity (AAFD).
The spring ligament is also important for maintaining the arch of the foot because it acts as a sling between the hindfoot and the midfoot. This, in conjunction with a torn or damaged TP, causes the joints to lose their normal alignment and thus the foot goes flat and can be very painful.
You need to have an X-ray whilst standing to accurately assess the severity of Flat Foot.
You may also be asked to obtain a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan to assess the injury to the tendon.
In many cases Flat Foot can be managed by non-surgical treatment. Physiotherapists or Podiatrists can discuss an exercise program to help retrain the muscles and Podiatrists can also provide you with an orthotic to provide arch support, which reduces demand on the tendon. Your Doctor can prescribe painkillers.
In many cases, Flat Foot can be managed by nonsurgical treatment.
When to consider having a discussion with your Surgeon for Flat Foot:
The aim of surgery is restoring the arch of the foot, which takes pain away and improves walking.There are two main options for surgical treatment of painful Flat Foot:
Hindfoot fusion is preferable if the joints under the ankle have become arthritic (painful and stiff). Please refer to the ankle arthritis page for details of this procedure.
Flat Foot reconstruction is complex and involves multiple operations around the foot. It usually involves repairing or strengthening theTP tendon by using another tendon called the Flexor Digitorum Longus (FDL), which normally has a role in bending the small joints in the lesser toes.This tendon is not missed for its original purpose.
In addition, the spring ligament is tightened during this operation and bony procedures (osteotomy with internal fixation), are used to reposition the heel bone to further support the arch of the foot. This is done by minimally invasive means.
Any surgical or invasive procedure carries risks. The information provided here is for general educational purposes only. Please contact Mr Goldbloom's rooms to discuss if surgery is appropriate for your situation.